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2015. január 31., szombat

THE PENUTIAN (PENEUT) LANGUAGES



PENUTIAN (PENEUT) LANGUAGES

 The name of the language family was composed from dual meaning words by Dixon and Kroeber in 1903. Maidu: Pen, (Pene), Yokutsan: Ponoi, (Puno)=Pen, Miwok: Oti-ko, (Otta),Uti-n (Uti-s) =Uti.They argued for the contraction of the five Californian language families – the Wintuan,Maiduan, Yokutsan, Miwokan, and the Costanoan, because they have got common typological features.The common name of the language families is Pen-uti-an, Penutian languages.There are two parts:
A)  Utian (Uti, Yokutian): Miwokan-Costanoan and the Yokutsan families 
B) Pen:Maiduan and the Wintuan families
The Penutian language family which was composed by Dixon and Kroeber is one of thet three biggest linguistic units in the chategorization of the Californian Indian languages.

Extension:

Edward Sapir in 1909:
A) Kalifornian group
B) Oregon Penutian (Plateau Penutian)
C) Mexican Penutian
a) Mixe-Zoque
b) Huave
c) Xinca-Lenca?
d) Chipaya-Maya-Araukan

Edward Sapir in 1920: He has rated the Plateau (Klamath-Modoc, Sahaptin, Molala-Cayuse), Tekelman of Oregon,Chinook and the Tsimisian groups to the Californian Penutian group.

Mason in 1940:
A) Penutian
B) Mayan-Mixe-Zoque-Huave-Totonacan

Jonhson 1940: Penutian and Xinca-Lenca

Benjamin Whorf: Macro-Penutian stock:

A) Penutian
B) Macro-Maya
C) Mochica- Chipacan-Mapuche

Trager and Harbens in 1958: Macro-Penutia version:
A) Penutian
B) Sahaptin
C) Azteco-Tanoan?
D) Tunican ?
E) Mayan
F) Totonacan

The Californian Penutian name has been being used for only the Californian Penutian group since the middle of the 1960s. The Penutian expression has been being used for the bigger,whole language family .

Voegelin in 1977: Penutian + Maya + Araukan
Schurr in 1990: Penutian + Maya
Torroni in 1992: Penutian + Maya




 UTIAN (MIWOKAN-CONSTANOAN, YOK-UTIAN) FAMILY



In the work of Catherine Callagham (1962) - ’Comparative Miwokan-Mutsun With Notes of Rumsen’ - the great number of datas squarely prove the similarities between the reconstructed Proto-Miwokan and the Mutsun languages.Callagham has reconstructed theProto-Utian basic language which is the basic of the Constanoan and the Miwokan languages  .
Callagham in 1988: Proto-Utian phonologyGolla 2007: Yok-Utian family , Yokuts + Utian (Miwokan and Costanoan ) .

The classification of Callaghan in 2001:

UTIANA (YOK-UTIAN) SUB - FAMILY

A)    MIWOKAN FAMILY

I. WESTERN BRANCH

+ 1. Coast Miwok
+ 2. Lake Miwok

II. EASTERN BRANCH

3.Bay (Saklan) Miwok
+ 4. Plains Miwok
5. Northern Sierra Miwok
6. Central Sierra Miwok
7. Southern Sierra Miwok

B) COSTANOAN FAMILY

I.   KARKIN (CARQUIN) LANGUAGE

+ 1.Karquin

II. NORTHERN BRANCH

2. S. Francisco Bay
a. Ramaytush
+ b. Chochenyo
+ c. Tamien (Tamyen)
+ 3. Chalon

III. SOUTHERN BRANCH

+ 4. Awaswas
5. Mutsun
6. Rumsen

COSTANOAN (OHLONE) FAMILY

The Costanoan (Ohlone) linguistic place is in the coast of Middle California from the San Francisco bay to the Monterey bay. The first description of the Mutsun language
was made by Fellippe Arroyo de la Cueste in 1816.
The Ohlone word is originally Miwokan and it means ’Westrian person’.
The Spanish name of it is Costenos (people of the coast).
The American settlers called them Costanoans.
Most of the languages has been extincted till 1950. Some people still speak the Mutsun, the Chochenyo and the Rumsen languages.
The Constanoan population in 1770 is 20,000-22,000 people, in 1850 1,000 people and in 2000 1,500 people.
The Proto-Constanoan till BC2000.The construction of the syllables of the Proto-Mutsun language wasspokenwas CVC.The construction of the syllables of the Rumsen are CVC:VC 
or CV:CVC .   

MIWOKAN FAMILY
The Miwokan linguistic place is in Middle California in the bay of the River Sacramento, and the River S. Joaquin, the Sierra Nevada Mountain, Marin Country, Contra Costa Country andthe Clear Lake Basin. The two main linguistic groups of it are the Western Miwokan and the Eastern Miwokan. The Spanish settlers has made missions in the place of Costa and Lake Miwokan Indians in the19th century.The population in 1800 was 22.000 people. Today it is 3,500 people. The Miwokan languagesare almost extincted.Culture: hunting, fishing, collecting, basketwork.
In 2008 in the place of the Miwokan Indians 5.000-year-old human remains were found .
It archaelogically proves that the ancestors of the Miwokan Indians lived there then.
The Proto-Miwokan basic language was spoken till BC2.000.The construction of the Southern Sierra Miwokan syllables is CVCV .

YOKUTSAN (MARIPOSAN) FAMILY

The Yokutsan linguistic place is in Middle California in the bay of the River S Joaquin. This
language family has got about 20 sub languages and 60 tribal languages.The yokutsan tribals lived near rivers and lakes.
Culture: hunting, fishing, collecting, basketwork and trade .
The population in 1770 was 70.000 people. In 2000 2.500 people. Many languages hasextincted and the living languages has almost extincted.The construction of the Chukchansi Yokutsan syllables is CVor CVC .
The construction of the Yavelmani syllables is CV(C), (CV), (CVC).

 WINTUAN (WINTUN) FAMILY

The Wintuan linguistic place is in North California in the bay of the River Sacramento and the Upper Trinity .
The name of the language is originally a Winthuh word, it means ’person’.The Wintuan Language is the best documented among the languages of the family language.The relationship of the languages are similar to the relationship of the New Latin languages in  Europe .
Culture: hunting, fishing, collecting, basketwork .
The population is about 2500 people today. The languages have almost extincted.
The construction of the syllables is CV(VC), CVC or CV.C .
Morphology: Polysynthetical characters
The languages are phonologically same.
Classification:

I.NORTHERN WINTUN BRANCH

1. Wintu
2. Nomlaki

II. SOUTHERN WINTUN BRANCH

3. Patwin
+4.South Patwin

  MAIDUAN (MAIDUN) FAMILY 

The Maiduan linguistic place is in North California near the American River and the Feather River and Northern Sierra Mountain .
The name ’Maidu’ means ’person’ and the origin of it is ’Maydy .They have lived int here homeplace for 2.000 years.They live in a hunting and collecting society. The Maiduan language has almost extincted. The population is about 4,000 people.
The sound system of the languages are the same, but the grammatic system is different. 
The construction of the syllables is CV or CVC .


Classification:

  1. Sierra Maidu
  2. Konkow ( N.W. Maidu )
  3. Nisenam


Patwin Maidu


Sierra Miwok
Maidu


Miwok


 
Wintu


 



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